Oceania and the Science of Race 1750-1940
Table of Contents
Foreign Bodies in Oceania
Part One – Emergence: Thinking the Science of Race, 1750-1880
Chapter 1. Climate to Crania: science and the racialization of human difference
New imperatives: taxonomy and biology
Original unity and the paradox of human differences
Origins, races, species
The triumph of racial difference
Species, hybrids, synthesis
Defining a species
Broca and the degrees of hybridity
Residual monogeny and the spectre of extinction
Part Two – Experience: the Science of Race and Oceania, 1750-1869
Chapter 2. 'Novus Orbis Australis': Oceania in the science of race, 1750-1850
Buffon and Dampier — 'great variety of Savages'
Brosses and the Forsters — 'two great varieties'
Blumenbach — 'this remarkable variety'
Naval naturalists and racial taxonomy in Oceania
Morality, science, and the lure of polygeny
Prichard — 'one original'; 'three principal groupes'
Chapter 3. 'Oceanic Negroes': British anthropology of Papuans, 1820-1869
John Crawfurd — 'two separate races'
George Windsor Earl — 'a single glance is sufficient'
Alfred Russel Wallace — 'Had I been blind …'
The priority of presence
The cardinality of comparison
Topography of purity: admixture, commixture, intermixture
On coming out strong
Part Three – Consolidation: the Science of Race and Aboriginal Australians, 1860-1885
Chapter 4. British Anthropological Thought in Colonial Practice
The ubiquity of race
The lure of Aboriginal bodies — the Darwinians
Metropolitan ideas and the colonial 'field'
The lure of Aboriginal bodies — the polygenists
Chapter 5. 'Three Living Australians' and the Société d'Anthropologie de Paris, 1885
Aboriginal Australians in 19th-century French anthropology
Cunningham's troupe and Topinard's 'presentation'
'Arguments about Aborigines'
Broca and human hybridity
Topinard and Aboriginal Australians
Topinard and the two races theory
Hamy and the push for ethnography
Houzé and polygeny
Jacques and the cultural perspective
Part Four – Complicity and Challenge: the Science of Race and Evangelical Humanism, 1800-1930
Chapter 6. The 'Faculty of Faith'
Heathens and the capacity for religious thought
Indigenous Gentiles: human unity and missions
'The faculty of faith': evidence and theories
George Brown, Frazer, and the origins of totemism
Chapter 7. 'White Man's Burden', 'White Man's Privilege'
Armchair anthropology and missionary ethnography
The naturalness of race and the challenge of experience
Internationalism and its enemies
The 'sacred trust of civilization' in New Guinea
Christianity and the race problem
Part Five – Zenith: Colonial Contradictions and the Chimera of Racial Purity, 1920-1940
Chapter 8. The Half-Caste in Australia, New Zealand, and Western Samoa between the Wars
The 'half-caste problem' between the wars
Differing evaluations of miscegenation
The 'half-caste problem' in Australia
Half-castes in New Zealand: not a problem?
The menace of the half-caste in Western Samoa and Fiji
The significance of place
The Cultivation of Difference in Oceania